Core workout for six pack abs
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10-Minute Core Workout for Shredded Six-Pack Abs, Backed by Science

Most people start a core workout routine because they are unhappy with their midsection.

If that’s you, you’re in good company! (No matter your fitness level.)

A beginner core workout is a perfect place to start for increasing core strength.

We’ll give you the best fitness advice so you can confidently build a core workout routine that really works.

We won’t get caught in the fitness journey weeds. Who has time for that?

Let’s jump right in with how a strong core benefits your everyday life.

Increased stability, coordination, and better balance: Since your core is central to your body, all movements count on it. This is true for basic movements like walking, standing, and holding posture. And it is especially true for higher fitness level movements like jumping, running, and pivoting. Increasing your stabilization, coordination, and balance starts with the core (1).

Improves muscular harmony and overall fitness: You can never just work a single core muscle! Instead, they rely on supporting muscles to work off of and/or recruit during movements. This includes recruitment of the hip flexors during the hollow hold and leg lift. Upper body muscles during the plank. And the list goes on. (1)

Reduction of low back pain: Cutting back on lower back pain is another one of the benefits of a strong core (2). This includes reducing the likelihood and severity of back pain. A stronger core may even help guard against future back surgery (3).

Improved posture: A stronger core assists the skeletal structure with posture. This is especially helpful in our constant sitting, constant leaning-forwards-down-at-a-device culture. It leads to all sorts of health issues revolving around weak gluteal muscles and overly tight hip flexors (4).

Everything from your erector spinae to your transverse abdominis work together to keep you from hunching forward (3).

Development of the abdominal muscles: Of course, a low body fat percentage is needed for visible abdominal muscles, which is largely diet and calorie expenditure-based. This doesn’t mean strengthening the abdominal muscles won’t do any good, however! It’s a two-step process:

1) Remove the layer of visceral fat over the abs and 2) develop the abs. Just because a better physique is a two-step process doesn’t mean you shouldn’t work both steps at once.

Improved control over bowel, bladder, and sex organs: The pelvic floor muscles control major aspects of these functions — and they can be strengthened like any other muscle!

Several exercises can help create a sturdy foundation, such as the deadbug, forearm plank, high plank, hollow hold, and more. This can lead to improved bowel and bladder control (5).

And it can even affect sexual function in both males and females (6) (7).

What Is Core Training?

Best Core Workout

Core training is strengthening and conditioning all aspects of the core, and then some.

The core makes up the torso — all the way around including the front, sides, and back.

But it can get confusing figuring out which exercises focus on which muscles and which muscles may or may not actually need more focus…shew!

And the workout hasn’t even started yet! Not to worry.

Basically, you have three different types of core moves listed:

  • Exercises that you brace and hold your bodyweight.
  • Exercises where you flex and/or extend the spine.
  • Full body compound moves that you recruit the core for as well.

They each have different pros and cons, but they all work to get the job done!

So don’t hesitate to pick the ones that work for your specific goals and workout plan.

Next, let’s look at the different core muscles groups:

On the front of the body (anterior), there are the upper and lower abdominals (rectus abdominis). 

These muscles make up what is known as the 6 pack, lining the front of the abdomen in pairs of two. 

It’s important to know how they work together and how to isolate them, as the upper abs tend to take over for the lower abs. (Several workouts listed below will give direction on how to isolate the lower abs.)

On the sides of the body (lateral) there are the external and internal obliques. 

Named for the diagonal muscle fibers, they line the sides of the torso and attach to the lower ribs, but the lats can be considered core muscles as well. 

These muscles all work together to make up the sides of your torso. The lats are visibly seen due to their size.

On the back of the body (posterior) there is the erector spinae. The erector spinae is a long set of muscles that runs up the length of the posterior spine, holding posture erect. 

The gluteal muscles and traps (trapezius) can be considered core muscles as well. 

The gluteal muscles play an important supporting role for the back muscles due to their strength and capability.

Lastly, you have several important deep core muscles: the transversus abdominis (the deepest internal core muscle), the multifidus, the pelvis muscles, and the diaphragm. 

The transversus abdominis (or transverse abdominis) is known as the body’s natural corset. 

It wraps around the entire core (360 degrees) and holds everything in place. 

The multifidus is a deep muscle that runs along the spine (like the erector spinae) but is more developed in the lumbar area. 

The pelvis muscles hold up or support the bowel, bladder, and sex organs. The diaphragm, of course, is responsible for inhaling and exhaling breath.

Core training involves activating all of these different muscle groups.

Focussing on your specific goals, however, may steer the core exercise routine in a specific direction.

You’ll have the freedom to choose to focus on any or all of these core muscle groups. Also, the majority of these are perfect for a home ab workout.

How to Perform This 10-Minute Core Workout

You’ll be performing 4 exercises from below in this 10-minute core workout.

To activate all core muscles, the best practice is to include all types of core moves.

From the list below, select 1 type of plank exercise (brace and hold), 1 flex move (flex and/or extend), and 2 full-body compound moves.

Perform each exercise for 3 sets. Please refer to each exercise for the recommended rep counts.

Perform this core workout 3-4 days a week to strengthen the abs and core and build a stronger body.

15 Best Core Exercises

Here are some tips to keep in mind:

  • Focus on lower abs first. Since the active upper abs tend to take over, it’s a good idea to do lower abs first when training them.
  • Protect the lumbar back. All of the listed core exercises can be done in a safe manner for the back. However, if this is a weak spot for you, consider the exercises that more effectively support the lumbar (lower) back. When in doubt, listen to your body.
  • A balanced approach is likely appropriate unless you’re rehabbing a specific area. If you are working on more glute activation, for instance, the glute bridge is a must. If you’re generally healthy and able, work all 360 degrees of your core to prevent a weak core in a single area.
  • Focus on proper form. Core exercises have a tendency to get a little wonky at times. Bring it back to the basics and pay special attention to the core firing.

1. Forearm Plank

Most people think planks when they think of a core exercise and for good reason.

The forearm plank is one of the best core workouts since it works on building strength and endurance simultaneously.

The plank not only works the abs, but it targets the deeper core muscles as well.

The transverse abdominis, for instance, is the deep “corset belt” muscle wrapping around the core.

This bodyweight exercise fosters a flatter, slimmer stomach.

  • This plank position starts by laying face down on the floor (a mat can help with comfort).
  • Come up to your elbows (forearms flat to the surface with palms facing down), and keep the elbows planted right below each shoulder.
  • Tighten your tummy (pull your belly button in toward your spine) and lift your right knee and left knee off the floor to create a straight plank position from head to heels.
  • Keep your whole body as straight as possible with minimal movement, continue breathing, and don’t let your shoulders creep up toward your ears.

Repetitions: 3 sets of 20-30 seconds and work up to 3 sets of 60 seconds.

Modifications: Adding a side plank can offer an additional challenge.

Type: Brace and Hold

2. High Plank

The high plank is the perfect core exercise if you also want to tone your shoulders and arms at the same time.

In addition to the front delts, chest, and triceps, it still builds core strength.

This includes the upper and lower abdominals, transversus abdominis, and obliques.

(And the high plank is great if you need a slightly lower fitness level than the forearm plank.)

  • This high plank position starts in the pushup position (a mat can help with comfort).
  • While on your hands and knees, lift your knees off the floor with your legs completely straight.
  • Use a fist if your wrists are bothered with bracing the body.
  • Your feet are hip-width apart and your lower body resting on your toes.
  • Your arms should be straight down from the shoulders, bracing your upper body.
  • Keep your elbows tucked into the sides of your body and resist letting your shoulders creep up toward your ears.
  • Keeping the tummy tight, hold a straight line in this high plank position with the whole body, making minimal movement from your heels to your head.

Repetitions: 3 sets of 20-30 seconds and work up to 3 sets of 60 seconds.

Modifications: Adding a side plank in a high plank position can offer an additional challenge.

Type: Brace and Hold

3. Dead Bug

The dead bug also targets the deeper abdominal muscles — and is among physical therapists’ favorite exercises.

This is because it can target and strengthen the pelvic floor muscles.

Strengthening these muscles, specifically, can assist with increased bladder control, even among young athletes (5).

And it can improve sexual function for both males (6) and females (7).

In addition to the pelvic floor muscles, it also strengthens the transversus abdominis, erector spinae, and upper and lower abdominals.

And by laying on your back, this tends to be a back safe exercise.

  • Start by laying on your back. Reach your arms straight up toward the ceiling (no bend in the elbows) and your knees straight up but with a 90-degree bend.
  • Flatten the curve of your lower back by focussing on core firing to press it down into the floor.
  • Tighten the tummy (pull your belly button in “toward your spine”) and lower one arm straight above your head while straightening the opposite leg (if you lower your right arm then straighten the left leg), each limb stopping before contacting the floor.
  • Return to the starting position and repeat with the opposite side (in this case, lower the left arm and straighten the right leg).

Repetitions: 2 sets of 10-15 reps and work up to 3 sets of 15-20.

Modifications: Hold small kettlebells to increase the core engagement.

Type: Flex and/or Extend

4. Hollow Hold

An intermediate exercise, the hollow hold challenges the front of the core along with the hip adductors (inner thighs) and hip flexors.

Including these muscles in a core exercise increases the ability for explosive movements, like running and jumping and also tones the inner thighs.

A great ab exercise, the hollow hold works the upper and lower abdominals.

Holding this pose also combines endurance and strength (in addition to bodyweight, you can add weight like a medicine ball, weight plate, or kettlebell).

  • Start by lying on your back.
  • Flex your upper abs into an ab crunch position and reach your right hand and left hand to the side, palms facing down, about 6 inches off the floor.
  • Then, keeping the legs straight, raise your heels off the ground. Find the center of gravity, making a “boat-like” position with your upper and lower body.
  • Brace your core and hold the position until it’s time to rest.

Repetitions: 3 sets of 20-30 seconds and work up to 3 sets of 60 seconds.

Modifications: Stretch your arms above your head holding a small kettlebell to increase the core engagement.

Type: Brace and Hold

5. Stability Ball Crunch

Plain crunches are ancient history, but this variation is far safer and more effective.

The stability ball contours the lower back (protecting against lower back pain).

This back safe exercise increases the range of motion while emphasizing the upper abs of the rectus abdominis.

  • Lie back on a large stability ball, supporting the lower back.
  • Your knees should extend outward from the ball, making a 90-degree angle with your lower legs, and feet hip-width apart planted on the floor for stability.
  • Rest your hands at the side of your head (but without applying any pressure).
  • Breathe out while crunching up, return back down, and repeat.

Repetitions: 2 sets of 10-15 reps and work up to 3 sets of 15-20.

Modifications: Hold a medicine ball, sandbag, or kettlebell during the movement to really build a strong midsection.

Type: Flex and/or Extend

6. Leg Lift

The leg lift (or leg raises), when done properly, has more range of motion than the average ab exercise.

This is true for both the concentric and eccentric contractions.

A concentric contraction occurs when a muscle shortens under tension, and this is the focus of most core exercises — only half the equation!

The eccentric contraction, though, has been shown to increase performance and reduce the chance of injury, and it occurs when a muscle lengthens under tension (8).

So, after the initial lift, lower the legs back down slowly to take advantage of the eccentric aspect of this exercise, eccentrically working the lower abdominals.

  • Start by laying down on your back.
  • Arms resting on the floor flat to the side, palms facing down, place your hands right under the upper buttocks. (This supports the lower back.)
  • With legs straight out (a slight bend in the knee is appropriate) lift them up toward the ceiling.
  • Return your legs back down, hover your heels off the floor, and then repeat.

Repetitions: 2 sets of 10-15 reps and work up to 3 sets of 15-20.

Modifications: A hanging leg raise is a great variation if your gym has the equipment for it.

Type: Flex and/or Extend

7. Reverse Crunch

Many core or abdominal exercises let the upper abs of the rectus abdominis take over.

Well, not the reverse crunch!

This reverse crunch has been proven to specifically activate the lower abs (9) — but only if done correctly — here’s how.

  • Start by lying on your back with your knees up. Arms can rest to your sides, palms face down.
  • Remove the curve in your lumbar back by pressing it down into the floor.
  • While keeping your upper body stable, lift your legs up and bring them toward your chest (while keeping the 90 degree bend in the knees).
  • Return back down and repeat.

Repetitions: 2 sets of 10-15 reps and work up to 3 sets of 15-20.

Type: Flex and/or Extend

8. Bicycle Crunch

Another intermediate exercise, the bicycle crunch is an abs workout that perfectly combines a rotating motion with a crunch (all while keeping the lower back supported).

This crunch variation can uniquely target the entire anterior (front) core.

This includes both the internal and external obliques, upper and lower abs of the rectus abdominis, and the deeper transversus abdominis.

  • Start by lying on your back with fingertips gently behind the side of your head.
  • Crunch up while pulling your left knee toward your right elbow, keeping your fingertips at the side of your head. Touch elbow to knee unless it is too difficult, then just focus on contracting the abs and obliques.
  • While your left knee and right elbow are touching briefly, your left elbow should remain in place but your right leg should point out straight, hovering a foot or two off the floor.
  • With the opposite side, bring your left leg back out straight and right elbow to the starting position while bringing your right knee to your left elbow together. It’s important that your limbs coordinate together.
  • This completes one repetition. Repeat for the desired count, making a “bicycle pedaling” motion with your right and left legs.

Repetitions: 2 sets of 10-15 reps and work up to 3 sets of 15-20.

Type: Flex and/or Extend

9. Dumbbell Squat

Although not usually thought of as a core exercise, the squat brings the entire body along for the ride.

This strengthens the core in addition to the quads, glutes, traps, and forearms.

It’s easy to add heavier weights, and performing this exercise with the proper range of motion promotes a strong midsection.

The back squat has been shown to directly target the erector spinae, as well as stimulate the external obliques and rectus abdominis. (10)

  • Start by standing slightly wider than feet shoulder-width apart, a weight in each hand at the sides of your body.
  • Keep your gaze fixed ahead and your torso upright throughout the entire movement.
  • Lower your hips down and back as if sitting, weights lowering to the sides of your body.
  • Bend your knees at the same time as the hips, but ensure they don’t go forward past your toes or inward and meet in the middle.
  • Descend until there is a 90-degree bend in your knees (or more if comfortable).
  • Press firmly through your feet and return to the starting position.

Repetitions: 2 sets of 6-8 reps and increase to 3 sets of 10-12.

Modifications: A bodyweight squat or using kettlebells works well if you’re doing a home workout routine.

Type: Compound

10. Glute Bridge

One of the safest and most effective posterior core exercises, the glute bridge focuses on the lower back and glute connection.

It calls on the smaller, but no less important, backside muscles of the quadratus lumborum (QL) and erector spinae.

The QL performs important deep core tasks that assist with breathing, pelvic stability, and spinal extension.

The erector spinae is a long group of thin muscles that (you guessed it) erect the spine, pulling against gravity to promote good posture.

Although smaller and less capable, these muscles have a helpful bond with the powerful gluteal muscles.

The glute bridge bonds the backside muscle groups reduce the likelihood of lower back pain and knee pain and improve athletic performance (11).

  • The starting position is lying on your back with the knees up.
  • Place your arms comfortably to the sides of your body, palms facing down on the floor.
  • Plant your feet and push through your heels to raise your hips up toward the ceiling.
  • At the top of the move, try to make a straight line from your chin to your knees, but keep a 90-degree bend in your knees.
  • Return your hips back to the floor and repeat for the desired reps.

Repetitions: 2 sets of 10-15 reps and work up to 3 sets of 15-20.

Modifications: Do a single-leg glute bridge to really increase the core work. For example, keep the right leg stretched out while letting the left leg perform the movement.

Then switch to the opposite side and let the left leg stretch out while the right leg performs the movement.

Type: Compound

11. Dumbbell Squats to Press

A more advanced exercise, this squat to press capitalizes on physics to give you a better exercise.

The lever arm is increased by lifting the resistance overhead, increasing torque — and in this case the need to resist against the increased force.

Studies have shown an overhead movement with a squat specifically activates the rectus abdominis and the external obliques. (10)

This high exertion squat variation also expends a large amount of calories. This makes it great to work into a HIIT workout (high-intensity interval training).

It is similar to the barbell squat to press (otherwise known as the thruster), a maximal effort lift that has earned the CrossFit reputation as “the most draining of all exercises” (12).

  • The starting position is standing slightly wider than feet shoulder-width apart.
  • Bring two dumbbells to shoulder height in a front press position, elbows down.
  • Keep your gaze fixed ahead and your torso upright throughout the entire movement.
  • Lower your hips down and back as if sitting.
  • Bend your knees at the same time as the hips, ensuring they don’t go forward past your toes or inward and meet in the middle.
  • Descend until there is a 90-degree bend in your knees (or more if comfortable).
  • Press firmly through your feet and return to the starting position while pushing the weights into an overhead press above your head.
  • Lower the dumbbells as you descend into the next repetition of the squat, back to the front press position.
  • Again, return to the top of your squat while pressing the dumbbells into another overhead press.
  • Repeat for the desired number of repetitions.

Repetitions: 2 sets of 6-8 reps and increase to 3 sets of 10-12.

Type: Compound

12. Barbell Deadlift

The barbell deadlift targets the posterior chain muscles like no other exercise!

It has shown the ability to provide a greater stimulus for back hypertrophy (muscle growth) than stability ball core exercises (13).

However, this does warrant a warning — it is one of the most important exercises to do correctly and without premature overloading heavier weights.

Done well, the barbell deadlift challenges the powerful glutes and hamstrings to perform the movement, while the posterior core (the erector spinae and multifidus), upper back, and lats all provide the stability.

  • The starting position is standing with a wide stance (wider than feet shoulder-width apart) directly in front of a barbell, toes pointed outward.
  • You should have a straight line, perpendicular to the floor, with your lower legs (from your ankles to shins to knee), and this should remain throughout the exercise.
  • Hinge the hips and reach down to grip the barbell with your hands with a shoulder-width grip. Some people prefer an overhand grip (both palms facing back) but others prefer a mixed grip (left palm forwards and right palm back, or the opposite side).
  • Set your lats by rotating your elbows in, tucking them close to the body, and pushing your shoulder blades down.
  • Maintain a neutral spine by not allowing your pelvis or low back to round forward.
  • Pushing down into the floor and keeping the bar as close to your shins as possible, pull the bar up to a standing position by extending the hips. The majority of the work should be done by the glutes and hamstrings.
  • Return the bar in a controlled motion to the floor. Do not let your hips drop at a different rate than the bar.
  • Your spine should remain neutral and your lats engaged for the entirety of the movement.
  • Repeat for the desired number of repetitions.

Repetitions: Repetitions: 2 sets of 6-8 reps and increase to 3 sets of 10-12.

Type: Compound

13. Swiss Ball Dumbbell Press

This is a great way to exercise with limited time.

It combines a bench press and core work all-in-one!

Using the swiss ball, this exercise also supports your lumbar back by recruiting the gluteus maximus and hamstrings.

The core is then tasked with the challenge of maintaining stability on an unstable surface.

  • Start by holding two dumbbells, sit on a large swiss ball, and roll down until the swiss ball is supporting your upper back.
  • Bring your knees to a 90-degree angle, feet planted on the ground, and work to lift your hips up to create a straight line from your chest to your knees.
  • Bring the dumbbells into a bench press position by holding them just wider than your chest, with your elbows at a 45-degree angle, and keeping your shoulder blades tucked back and down.
  • Keep your body stable while pressing the dumbbells straight up, both the right side and left side should move up together.
  • Return them back to the starting position and repeat for the desired number of reps.

Repetitions: 2 sets of 8-10 reps and increase to 3 sets of 12-15.

Type: Compound

14. Russian Twists

When it comes to the obliques, the Russian twist is the best place to start.

This exercise challenges the front and sides of your core in both endurance and strength (in addition to body weight, you can add resistance using a medicine ball, weight plate, or kettlebell).

Strong obliques not only look great, but they also contribute to better posture.

While weak external and internal obliques can lead to increased lower back pain (14).

  • The starting position is to sit down (a yoga mat can increase comfort), lean back slightly, and place your heels on the floor with a 90-degree bend in your knees.
  • Brace your core and hover your heels off the floor while keeping at least a 45-degree angle bend in your knees.
  • Clasp your hands together at the chest and keep an upright posture in your torso.
  • Keeping your body stable, twist your arms to one side of your body reaching toward the floor with your clasped hands.
  • Return your arms to the starting position and repeat on the opposite side, and this completes one rep.
  • Continue for the desired rep count while keeping your knees bent and hovering the heels off the floor.

Repetitions: 2 sets of 8-10 reps and increase to 3 sets of 12-15.

Type: Flex and/or Extend

15. Pallof Press

Effective for everyone from beginner to expert, the pallof press is a customizable anti-rotational core exercise.

It provides an asymmetrical force on the core, making it another favorite among physical therapists.

The asymmetrical force increases dynamic stabilization which has been shown to protect against injury. (15)

This makes the Pallof press the perfect exercise for beginners to experts and core building to core stability.

  • The starting position is standing with your feet slightly wider than shoulder-width apart.
  • Attach an exercise band to a firm surface just under the height of your chest. (Using a pulley system on an exercise machine also works.)
  • Position yourself so the exercise band or pulley is direct to your side, hold on to it with both hands directly in front of your body just under the chest.
  • Your shoulder blades should be held down and back (resist letting your shoulder creep up toward your ears).
  • Step far enough away to remove the slack in the system.
  • Keeping your body stable, push your hands straight out in front of you, pause for 1-3 seconds, and return to the starting position.
  • Repeat for the desired number of reps, and don’t forget to turn and do the opposite side.

Repetitions: 2 sets of 8-10 reps and increase to 3 sets of 12-15.

Type: Compound

Bonus Core Workout:

16. Bear Crawl

The bear crawl exercises use muscles in your entire body including the shoulders (deltoids), chest and back, glutes, quadriceps, ab muscles, and core.

Start a high plank position with the hands shoulder-width apart and the legs straight out directly behind the body about hip-width apart, keeping the knees bent.

Push the toes of the left foot into the floor while squeezing the right thigh and glute.

Move the left hand and the right leg forward to start crawling. Alternate the arm and leg movements while keeping the back straight and the hips and shoulders at the same height. Crawl for the desired distance.

Type: Compound

Final Take

Yes, your midsection fitness journey can feel too difficult…at first.

Now you have the right information, you can seamlessly blend a great core workout in with your everyday activities.

And in daily life, starting is the hardest part. 

So whether in the gym or doing core workouts at home, start with small positive steps. 

Pick three of the above core strength exercises (one that targets the anterior core, posterior core, and lateral core) and try them out.

Consistency is key, so try 3-5 days a week to see significant improvements.

Review the benefits of a strong core and pay close attention as your fitness level increases. 

No more newbies here, because your fitness journey has set sail — you’ve got this!

You may also like these home ab workouts:

References

  1. “Why Your Core Muscles Matter.” Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 29 Aug. 2020, www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/in-depth/core-exercises/art-20044751#:~:text=Core%20exercises%20train%20the%20muscles,depend%20on%20stable%20core%20muscles.
  2. “Why a Strong Core Can Help Reduce Low Back Pain.” Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland Clinic Health Essentials, 22 Sept. 2020, health.clevelandclinic.org/strong-core-best-guard-back-pain/.
  3. Hyde, Thomas. “Back Exercises and Abdominal Exercise Recommendations.” Spine, Spine-Health, 3 Sept. 2009, www.spine-health.com/wellness/exercise/back-exercises-and-abdominal-exercise-recommendations.
  4. “No Joke: Your Desk Job Promotes ‘Dead Butt’ Syndrome.” Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland Clinic Health Essentials, 28 Aug. 2020, health.clevelandclinic.org/no-joke-your-desk-job-promotes-dead-butt-syndrome/.
  5. Dias, Nicholas, et al. “Pelvic Floor Dynamics during High-Impact Athletic Activities: A Computational Modeling Study.” Clinical Biomechanics (Bristol, Avon), U.S. National Library of Medicine, 18 Nov. 2016, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27886590/.
  6. Cohen, Deborah, et al. “The Role of Pelvic Floor Muscles in Male Sexual Dysfunction and Pelvic Pain.” Sexual Medicine Reviews, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 8 Jan. 2016, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27872005/.
  7. Verbeek, Michelle, and Lynsey Hayward . “Pelvic Floor Dysfunction and Its Effect on Quality of Sexual Life.” Sexual Medicine Reviews, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 24 July 2019, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31351916/.
  8. Hody, Stéphanie, et al. “Eccentric Muscle Contractions: Risks and Benefits.” Frontiers in Physiology, Frontiers Media S.A., 3 May 2019, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6510035/.
  9. Sarti, M A, et al. “Muscle Activity in Upper and Lower Rectus Abdominus during Abdominal Exercises.” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Dec. 1996, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8976314/.
  10. Aspe, Rodrigo R, and Paul A Swinton. “Electromyographic and Kinetic Comparison of the Back Squat and Overhead Squat.” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 28 Oct. 2014, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24662228/.
  11. Sikaczowski, Natalia. “3 Reasons Strong Glutes Are Important.” Symmetry Physical Therapy, Symmetry Physical Therapy, 15 Aug. 2017, symmetryptmiami.com/5-reasons-strong-glutes-important/.
  12. “The Thruster.” CrossFit, CrossFit.com, 12 Apr. 2019, www.crossfit.com/essentials/the-thruster.
  13. Nuzzo, James L, et al. “Trunk Muscle Activity during Stability Ball and Free Weight Exercises.” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 22 Jan. 2008, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18296961/.
  14. “3 Common Weak Muscles.” b-Reddy.org, b-Reddy.org, 1 June 2018, b-reddy.org/3-common-weak-muscles/.
  15. Huxel Bliven, Kellie C, and Barton E Anderson. “Core Stability Training for Injury Prevention.” Sports Health, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 5 Nov. 2013, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24427426/.

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